Recent Issue – Vol 81, No 2 – Summer 2008

Special Issue: Migration and Mobility
Guest Editors: Don DeVoretz and David Zweig

INTRODUCTION: Migration and Mobility of Chinese in the Greater Pacific Region

Don DeVoretz and David Zweig


Time-space Punctuation: Hong Kong’s Border Regime and Limits on Mobility

Alan Smart and Josephine Smart

One of the most powerful metaphors for globalization is David Harvey’s “time-space compression.” The speeding up of economic and social processes has experientially shrunk the globe. As with all metaphors, it both offers important insights and is potentially misleading. The world is not shrinking in a uniform manner. Compression is uneven for different kinds of actors, objects and ideas, and discontinuous across space. We supplement the imagery of time-space compression with that of time-space punctuation. Punctuation identifi es symbols that break up the fl ow of speech. The space of fl ows that make up a globalized world is also punctuated by a variety of barriers. Securitization since 9/11 and increased surveillance of emerging infectious diseases also heighten the importance of borders. These issues are explored through a case study of how Hong Kong’s border is managed and transformed. A crucial “punctuation” function of this border continues despite the resumption of Chinese sovereignty. Increasingly, the border has become a complicated system of punctuation in a region that has become intensely integrated. Hong Kong residents can move more freely across the border than can residents of the rest of China, but movement into Hong Kong is differentiated in relation to family status, economic desirability, capacity to spend as a tourist, and the possession of valued human capital. These barriers to mobility have important impacts on restructuring both Hong Kong and the neighbouring region of China.

En français

The Limits of Brain Circulation: Chinese Returnees and Technological Development in Beijing

Yun-Chung Chen

The Saxenian theory of brain circulation analyzes the two-way fl ow of transnational technical communities instead of the one-way fl ow portrayed in the brain drain theory. The brain-circulation theory is based on the experience of highly skilled labourers who travel frequently between the Silicon Valley and Hsinchu (Taiwan), leading to industrial upgrading in both locations. This article argues that the brain circulation theory cannot be applied to Zhongguancun (ZGC), a new high-tech region in Beijing, because ZGC is not compatible with the often neglected hypotheses in the brain-circulation theory, i.e., (i) a decentralized industrial structure with specialized producer networks; (ii) a trust-based inter-fi rm network that induces learning; (iii) a critical fi nancial infrastructure for high-tech startups; and (iv) the role of the state in facilitating technology transfer. Then, what roles do the transnational technical community (Chinese returnees) play in ZGC? My fi ndings suggest that unlike the Silicon Valley and Hsinchu cases, the knowledge assets (e.g., venture capital and research) in ZGC are mostly institutionalized and remain in the hands of the Chinese state. Thus, brain circulation can only apply to a limited number of experienced Chinese returnees who have the political skills to tap into institutionalized assets in ZGC. Nonetheless, the majority of the Chinese returnees continue to have a positive impact on the technological development of ZGC (different from the Hsinchu experience) by creating informal and indirect links between firms and public research institutions.

En français

Immigration from China to Canada in the Age of Globalization: Issues of Brain Gain and Brain Loss

Peter S. Li

The age of globalization has changed the labour demand of immigrant-receiving countries. As Canada intensifi es the admission of skilled immigrants in recent years, China has emerged as the top sending country to Canada in terms of the number of immigrants and the volume of human capital transferred. Between 1991 and 2000, 53,480 university-educated immigrants from China came to Canada, bringing with them a saving in educational cost of 1.8 billion dollars for Canada. However, only about 59 percent of these highly educated immigrants participated in Canada’s labour market in 2001, and of those who did, they earned less than Canada-born university-educated men and women. When the aggregate value of brain loss is taken into account, Canada only managed to retain about 723 to 851 million dollars, or 39 to 46 percent of the original value, in educational savings. In the long run, issues of brain loss are likely to hamper Canada’s capacity to continue to sustain its brain gain from the worldwide market of skilled workers.

En français

Learning to be Australian: Adaptation and Identity Formation of Young Taiwanese Immigrants in Melbourne, Australia

Lan-Hung Nora Chiang and Chih-Hsiang Sean Yang

This research focuses on the adaptation and self-identity of young Taiwanese immigrants to Australia. The study is based on in-depth interviews and observation of young Taiwan-born immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Participants were initially exposed to Chinese values as part of their education in Taiwan, both in schools and in their families. On moving to a multicultural country with many ethnic groups, immigrants had to learn to communicate with people in English and encountered many problems in their schooling and interpersonal relationships due to language deficiencies. Responses to these diffi culties ranged from studying the English language harder to retreating to the use of Chinese to make friends, mainly within the Taiwanese community. However, families of young immigrants may have infl uenced their choice of friends and therefore also their identity. Families also infl uenced the young immigrants’ choice of a university major. In turn this infl uenced their careers after graduation. Family influences lessened over the years, and young immigrants eventually adapted to the Australian career environment. However, due to their dual or multicultural backgrounds, those young immigrants became competitive not only in Australia, but also in Taiwan, Mainland China, Asia, and elsewhere in the world.

En français

Books Reviewed In This Issue

Asia General

REGIONALISM AND GLOBALIZATION IN EAST ASIA: Politics, Security & Economic Development. By Mark Beeson.Reviewed by Hui Feng

THE GEOPOLITICS OF GLOBALIZATION: The Consequences for Development. By Baldev Raj Nayar.Reviewed by Howard Lentner

TOWARD AN EAST ASIAN EXCHANGE RATE REGIME: Edited by Duck-Koo Chung and Barry Eichengreen.Reviewed by Tony Cavoli

GENDER, SEXUALITY, AND BODY POLITICS IN MODERN ASIA: By Michael G. Peletz.Reviewed by Johanna Hood

China and Inner Asia

CHINESE OVERSEAS: Migration, Research and Documentation. Edited by Tan Chee-Beng, Colin Storey and Julia Zimmerman.Reviewed by Yuen-fong Woon

CITIES IN MOTION: Interior, Coast, and Diaspora in Transnational China. Edited by Sherman Cochran and David Strand; General Editor, Wen-hsin Yeh.Reviewed by Bill Sewell

CHINESE TRANSNATIONAL NETWORKS. Edited by Chee-Beng Tan.Reviewed by Madeline Hsu

SOCIAL CHANGE IN CONTEMPORARY CHINA: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion. Edited by Wenfang Tang and Burkart Holzner.Reviewed by T.J. Cheng

RISING STAR. China’s New Security Diplomacy. By Bates Gill.Reviewed by Christian Constantin

SOCIAL STATES: China in International Institutions, 1980-2000. By Alastair Iain Johnston. Reviewed by Marc Lanteigne

THE CHINESE ECONOMY IN THE 21ST CENTURY: Enterprise and Business Behaviour. Edited by Barbara Krug and Hans HendrischkeReviewed by David Ip

WORRYING ABOUT CHINA. The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. By Gloria Davies. Reviewed by Christopher Bush

FOR GODS, GHOSTS, AND ANCESTORS: The Chinese Tradition of Paper Offerings. By Janet Lee Scott.Reviewed by James A. Flath

CHINA AT WAR: Regions of China, 1937-45. Edited by Stephen R. MacKinnon, Diana Lary and Ezra F. Vogel.Reviewed by Chang-tai Hung

MAID TO ORDER IN Hong Kong: Stories of Migrant Workers. By Nicole Constable.Reviewed by Jiemin Bao

Northeast Asia

PAN-asianism in modern japanese history: Colonialism, Regionalism and Borders. Edited by Sven Saaler and J. Victor Koschmann.Reviewed by Mark R. Peattie

LAW IN JAPAN: A Turning Point. Edited by Daniel H. Foote.Reviewed by Shigenori Matsui

CROSS CURRENTS: Regionalism and Nationalism in Northeast Asia. Edited by Gi-Wook Shin and Daniel C. Sneider.Reviewed by Gilbert Rozman

JAPANESE LOVE HOTELS: A Cultural History. By Sarah Chaplin.Reviewed by Jeffrey Alexander

A DISCONTENTED DIASPORA: Japanese Brazilians and the Meanings of Ethnic Militancy, 1960-1980. By Jeffrey Lesser.Reviewed by Mariko Nagoshi

THE MAKING OF MINJUNG: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. By Namhee Lee.Reviewed by Yoonkyung Lee

RED ROGUE: The Persistent Challenge of North Korea. By Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr. Reviewed by John Feffer

South Asia

THE CLASH WITHIN: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India’s Future. By Martha C. Nussbaum.Reviewed by Catherin Wilson

DANCING WITH GIANTS: China, India, and the Global Economy. Edited by L. Alan Winters and Shahid Yusuf.Reviewed by Ashok Kotwal

PAKISTAN: Social and Cultural Transformations in a Muslim Nation. By Mohammad Abdul Qadeer.Reviewed by Matthew A. Cook

Southeast Asia

SECURING SOUTHEAST ASIAN: The Politics of Security Sector Reform. By Mark Beeson and Alex J. Bellamy.Reviewed by Pierre P. Lizee.

BURMA’S MASS LAY MEDITATION MOVEMENT: Buddhism and the Cultural Construction of Power. By Ingrid Jordt.Reviewed by Ian Harris

DEMOCRACY AND NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THAILAND. By Michael Kelly Connors. Reviewed by Kasian Tejapira

TROUBLED RELATIONS: The United States and Cambodia since 1870. By Kenton Clymer. Reviewed by Karen L. Greene

CAMBODGE: The Cultivation of a Nation, 1860-1945. By Penny Edwards.Reviewed by Milton E. Osborne

MODERNITY AND MALAYSIA: Settling the Menraq Forest Nomads. By Alberto G. Gomes. Reviewed by Tim Bunnell

POWERS OF BLESSING FROM THE WILDERNESS AND FROM HEAVEN: Structure and Transformations in the Religion of the Toraja in the Mamasa Area of South Sulawesi. By Kees Buijs.Reviewed by Gregory Forth

INDONESIA BETRAYED: How Development Fails. By Elizabeth Fuller Collins.Reviewed by Michele Ford

ART AS POLITICS: Re-Crafting Identities, Tourism, and Power in Tana Toraja, Indonesia. By Kathleen M. Adams.Reviewed by Jill Forshee

Australasia and the Pacific Region

COERCIVE RECONCILIATION: Stabilise, Normalise, Exit Aboriginal Australia. Edited by Jon Altman and Melinda Hinkson.Reviewed by Toon van Meijl

LIVING TOGETHER: Towards Inclusive Communities. Edited by Michelle Thompson-Fawcett and Claire Freeman.Reviewed by Neriko Doerr

LAND OF BEAUTIFUL VISION: Making a Buddhist Sacred Place in New Zealand. By Sally McAra.Reviewed by Ann Hardy

FACING THE PACIFIC: Polynesia and the U.S. Imperial Imagination. By Jeffrey Geiger. Reviewed by Heather Waldroup

WAYWARD WOMEN: Sexuality and Agency in a New Papua Guinea Society. By Holly Wardlow.Reviewed by Martha Macintyre

PENINA ULIULI: Contemporary Challenges in Mental Health for Pacific People. Edited by Philip Culbertson, Margaret Nelson Agee with Cabrini ‘Ofa.Reviewed by Robert J. Gregory

THE POWER OF PERSPECTIVE: Social Ontology and Agency on Ambrym Island, Vanuatu. By Knut Mikjel Rio.Reviewed by Ilana Gershon

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