— Special Issue —
CITIZENSHIP AND MIGRATION
Guest Editor: Apichai W. Shipper
Introduction: Politics of Citizenship and Transnational Gendered Migration in East and Southeast Asia
By Apichai W. Shipper
The concept of citizenship is fluid and constructed. State actors, societal actors, and courts play important roles in the construction and reconstruction of formal, substantive, and differentiated citizenship. The recent arrival of transnational gendered migration from neighboring countries to East and Southeast Asia challenges preexisting assumptions about how political communities are defined and how new members should be treated. This introductory chapter proposes an analytical framework to understand the politics of citizenship and transnational gendered migration within the context of East and Southeast Asia.
Outlawed Children: Japanese Filipino Children, Legal Defiance and Ambivalent Citizenships
By Nobue Suzuki
Recently, many scholars have studied the burgeoning number of intimate relationships involving global migrations of people. They have demonstrated that cross-border liaisons of mixed nationalities are born not simply out of “love” but also of inequalities and power struggles occurring at crisscrossed intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, class and nationality. Yet, the existing literature on these associations has thus far tended to focus on adult relationships, and studies on children born to these couples continue to be scarce, especially, when children are born out of wedlock to border-crossing parents, the children’s citizenship and other rights complicate the existing social system and may challenge national sovereignty. Based on ethnographic research conducted in the 2000s among children born to unwed Filipino women and Japanese men (JFC), this article details the processes of JFC’s lawsuits against the Japanese state in order to reinstate their once-denied Japanese nationality. It then discusses some of the implications of their defiance to the state power for these children’s citizenships beyond political entitlements by introducing several cases of the experiences of the children who grew up in Japan and those who recently gained entry to their pátria without fathers.
Rethinking Belongingness in Korea: Transnational Migration, “Migrant Marriages” and the Politics of Multiculturalism
By Timothy Lim
Korean identity-based on a conflation of race and ethnicity-has been generally accepted as an unquestioned fact and closely associated with rights to citizenship and belongingness in Korean society: “non-Koreans” have simply and unabashedly been excluded from membership in South Korea. However, the now three-decades-old surge in transnational migration is beginning to erode the once-solid myth of South Korea’s homogeneity, and with it, the taken-for-granted belief that the South Korea is only for Koreans. Moreover, the dramatic increase in international marriages, especially those between a Korean male and a “foreign bride,” bring an added dimension to transnational migration in South Korea, one in which questions of identity, citizenship, and belongingness must be directly addressed. The process of social transformation in Korea will be complex, contingent and profoundly political, involving multiple socio-political actors; increasing tensions along gender, racial, and class lines; and intense debates over the discourse and practices of citizenship, belonging and national identity. This paper argues that transnational migration-both of workers and foreign spouses-has already laid the basis for a significant change in long-held conception of Korean identity and belongingness. This is partly evidenced in the increasingly salient idea that Korea is now a “multicultural society.”
Marital Immigration and Graduated Citizenship: Post-Naturalization Restrictions on Mainland Chinese Spouses in Taiwan
By Sara L. Friedman
As Taiwan seeks to establish itself as an independent polity in the international community, it simultaneously confronts the problem of how to integrate almost 300,000 marital immigrants from Mainland China. This most recent wave of marital immigration across the Taiwan Strait began in the early 1990s and reached its peak in 2003, stabilizing since then at roughly 10 percent of all marriages annually. Chinese marital immigrants in Taiwan face more onerous requirements for residency and citizenship than any other category of foreign spouse. In the years immediately following naturalization, moreover, they remain barred from civil service employment and have limited family reunification rights. This paper examines these post-naturalization inequalities in relation to 1) broader population concerns that encourage continued restrictions on Chinese immigration; and 2) struggles over how to define the scope of the Taiwanese family and nation. It asks whether, given this environment, Chinese marital immigrants can ever become full Taiwanese citizens, both in terms of juridical status and national incorporation. This question underscores a key tension in Taiwan’s nation-building project: how to integrate immigrants who are racially, ethnically, and linguistically similar but who come tainted by longstanding political differences across the Taiwan Strait.
Nostalgia, Anxiety and Hope: Migration and Ethnic Identity of Chosonjok in China
By Wang-Bae Kim
Although the migration of Koreans to Manchuria has a long history, the main influx occurred after 1910 when Korean agricultural peasants and industrial entrepreneurs migrated mostly to the area above the Korean peninsula and Harbin and Shenyang to seek newly emerging economic opportunities. Currently, there are approximately two million people of Korean ancestry living in China with the majority of that population concentrated in the Manchurian region. Recently, a considerable number of ethnic Koreans (Chosŏnjok), both female and male, have moved away to urban centres elsewhere in China in the midst of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Moreover, after normalization of diplomatic relations between the PRC and South Korea in 1992, some Chosŏnjok in China have travelled to South Korea as migrant workers, especially young Chosŏnjok women who have arrived as marriage partners for South Korean men. As the PRC developed economically and its international stature rose, younger ethnic Koreans found themselves faced with more choices. As well, the weak autonomy of civil society within the region has made it difficult to reinforce ethnic Korean identity through discursive means. With the migration and concurrent in-migration of Han-Chinese to Chosŏnjok villages and cities, many Chosŏnjok in the formerly homogenous communities are experiencing a loss of ethnic identity and solidarity. This produces a complicate feeling of nostalgia for the past among older Chosŏnjok and of anxiety and hope for the future among Chosŏnjok of all ages.
Labour Recruitment, Circuits of Capital and Gendered Mobility: Reconceptualizing the Indonesian Migration Industry
By Johan Lindquist
During the last decade there has been a marked shift in the structure of migration from Indonesia with the deregulation of the transnational labour recruitment market after the fall of Suharto and a broader attempt across the region to regulate migrant flows to and from receiving countries in the wake of the Asian economic crisis. In this process, hundreds of Indonesian labour recruitment agencies have come to function as brokers in an increasingly government-regulated economy that sends documented migrants to countries such as Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. Based primarily on fieldwork on the island of Lombok, one of the major migrant-sending areas in Indonesia, the article considers the gendered aspects of this state-market relationship by focusing ethnographic attention on the initial stages of recruitment, as informal labour brokers deliver migrants to formal agencies. Critically, the article describes how capital increasingly flows “down” towards female migrants and “up” from male migrants-i.e., men must go into debt while women do not pay (or are even offered money) to travel abroad-thus highlighting the gendered dimensions of the current economy of transnational migration. More generally, the article argues for a renewed focus on the migration industry as a way of reconceptualizing Indonesian transnational migration in the context of contemporary forms of globalization.
Books Reviewed In This Issue
Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Edited by Don McCaskill, Prasit Leepreecha and He Shaoying.Reviewed by Ken MacLean
Currency and Contest in East Asia: The Great Power Politics of Financial Regionalism. By William W. Grimes.Reviewed by Kevin G. Cai
Institutions of the Asia-Pacific: ASEAN, APEC, and Beyond. By Mark Beeson.Reviewed by Tsukasa Takamine
Asian-European Relations: Building Blocks for Global Governance? Edited by Jürgen Rüland et al.Reviewed by Julie Gilson
The Politics of Knowledge. Edited by Saw Swee-Hock and Danny Quah.Reviewed by Robert L. Curry, Jr.
Ultra-Low Fertility in Pacific Asia: Trends, Causes and Policy Issues. Edited by Gavin Jones, Paulin Tay Straughan and Angelique Chan.
Reviewed by Andrew Eungi Kim
Anthropological Intelligence: The Deployment and Neglect of American Anthropology in the Second World War. By David H. Price.
Reviewed by Lamont Lindstrom
Beyond the Final Score: The Politics of Sportin Asia. By Victor D. Cha. Reviewed by Hyung-Gu Lynn
China and Inner Asia
Axis of Convenience: Moscow, Beijing, and the New Geopolitics. By Bobo Lo.Reviewed by Bin Yu
Technological Empowerment : The Internet, State, and Society in China. By Yongnian Zheng.Reviewed by Duncan Clark
The Rise of China and International Security: America and Asia Respond. Edited by Kevin J. Cooney and Yoichiro Sato.Reviewed by Allen S. Whiting
China’s Transformat ions : The Stories Beyond the Headlines. Edited by Lionel M. Jensen and Timothy B. Weston.Reviewed by Kenneth W. Foster
Resisting Manchukuo: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Occupation. By Norman Smith.Reviewed by Karen L. Thornber
The Teahouse: Small Business, Everyday Culture, and Public Politics in Chengdu, 1900-1950. By Di Wang.Reviewed by Michael Tsin
Culinary Nostalgia: Regional Food Culture and the Urban Experience in Shanghai. By Mark Swislocki.Reviewed by Josephine Smart
Hong Kong on the Move: 10 Years as the HKSAR. Edited by Carola McGiffert and James T.H. Tang; forewords by Ronald Arculli and John J. Hamre.Reviewed by Bernard Luk
Democratization in Taiwan: Challenges in Transformation. Edited by Philip Paolino and James Meernik.Reviewed by Netina Tan
Strait Talk: United States–Taiwan Relations and the Crisis with China. By Nancy Bernkopf Tucker.Reviewed by Robert Sutter
Taiwan in Japan’s Empire-Building: An Institutional Approach to Colonial Engineering. By Hui-yu Caroline Tsai.Reviewed by Paul D. Barclay
Olympic Dreams: China and Sports, 1895–2008. By Xu Guoqi. Reviewed by Fan Hong
Leprosy in China : A History. By Angela Ki Che Leung. Reviewed by David Luesink
Client State: Japan in the American Embrace. By Gavan McCormack. Reviewed by Andrew L. Oros
Pacific Alliance: Reviving U.S.-Japan Relations. By Kent E . Calder. Reviewed by Andrew L. Oros
Japan’s Middle East Security Policy: Theory and Cases. By Yukiko Miyagi. Reviewed by Yuko Nakano
Troubled Apologies among Japan , Korea, and the United Stat es. By Alexis Dudden. Reviewed Matthew Penney
Sorry States: Apologies in International Politics. By Jennifer Lind. Reviewed by Mark Gibney
Crossing Empire’s Edge: Foreign Ministry Police and Japanese Expansionism in Northeast Asia. By Erik Esselstrom. Reviewed by Harald Fuess
Japan’s Outcaste Youth: Education for Liberation. By June A. Gordon. Reviewed by Christopher Bondy
Evaluating Evidence: A Positivist Approach to Reading Sources on Modern Japan. By George Akita. Reviewed by Frederick R. Dickinson
Korea’s Developmental Alliance: State, Capital and the Politics of Rapid Development. By David Hundt. Reviewed by Hyun-Chin Lim
Kim Jong Il’s Leadership of North Korea. By Jae-Cheon Lim. Reviewed by Terence Roehrig
The Partition of Korea after World War II: A Global History. By Jongsoo James Lee. Reviewed by Vipan Chandra
India’s Economic Transition: The Politics of Reform. Edited by Rahul Mukherji. Reviewed by Vernon Hewitt
The Politics of Postsecular Religion: Mourning Secular Futures. By Ananda Abeysekara. Reviewed by Neera Chandhoke
School Health Services in India: The Social and Economic Contexts. Edited by Rama V. Baru. Reviewed by S. Vivek
Sikhs at Large: Religion, Culture, and Politics in Global Perspective. By Verne Dusenbury. Reviewed by Anne Murphy
An American in Gandhi’s India: The Biography of Satyanand Stokes. By Asha Sharma with Nandini Sharma; foreword by the Dalai Lama.
Reviewed by Lloyd Rudolph
The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. By Asoka Bandarage. Reviewed by Bruce Matthews
Rethinking Democracy. By Rajni Kothari. Reviewed by Craig Jeffrey
The Chinese in Southeast Asia and Beyond: Socioeconomic and Political Dimensions. By Ching-Hwang Yen. Reviewed by Jemma Purdey
Globalization, Culture and Society in Laos. By Boike Rehbein. Reviewed by Jonathan Rigg
Globalization and National Autonomy: The Experience of Malaysia. Edited by Joan M. Nelson, Jacob Meerman and Abdul Rahman Embon. Reviewed by Greg Felker
Party Politics and Democratization in Indonesia: Golkar in the Post-Suharto Era. By Dirk Tomsa. Reviewed by Paul J. Carnegie
Gender, Islam and Democracy in Indonesia. By Kathryn Robinson. Reviewed by Paige Johnson Tan
The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics. By Tania Murray Li. Reviewed by Danilyn Rutherford
Myanmar (Burma) since 1962: The Failure of Development. By Peter John Perry. Reviewed by Anne Booth
Australasia and the Pacific Region
Speaking from the Heart: Stories of Life, Family and Country. Edited by Sally Morgan, Tjalaminu Mia and Blaze Kwaymullina. Reviewed by Elizabeth Grant
Holding Men: Kanyirninpa and the Health of Aboriginal Men. By Brian F. McCoy. Reviewed by Barry Judd
Coca-Globalization: Following Soft Drinks from New York to New Guinea. By Robert J. Foster. Reviewed by Nancy Pollock
Water, Sovereignty and Borders in Asia and Oceania. Edited by Devleena Ghosh, Heather Goodall and Stephanie Hemelryk Donald.
Reviewed by Susan Russell
The Creation of Animal Life: As Bilong Animal. Edited and translated by Thomas H. Slone; illustrations by Jada Wilson. Reviewed by Naomi M. McPherson
The Origin of People and Society: As Bilong Manmeri na Sosaiti. Edited and translated by Thomas H. Slone; illustrations by Peter Leo Ella.
Reviewed by Naomi M. McPherson
Consequences of Contact: Language Ideologies and Sociocultural Transformations in Pacific Societies. By Miki Makihara and Bambi B. Schieffelin. Reviewed by John Barker
Vanished Islands and Hidden Continents of the Pacific. By Patrick D. Nunn. Reviewed by Glenn Petersen
Telling Pacific Lives: Prisms of Process. Edited by Brij V. Lal and Vicki Luker. Reviewed by Alexander Mawyer
Oceania: Art of the Pacific Islands in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. By Eric Kjellgren. Reviewed by Roderick Ewins
The Return of Cultural Treasures. 3rd ed. By Jeanette Greenfield. Reviewed by Fanny Wonu Veys
To the Islands: White Australians and the Malay Archipelago since 1788. By Paul Battersby. Reviewed by Chris Ballard
Making Dead Birds: Chronicle of a Film. By Robert Gardner; foreword by Phillip Lopate; edited by Charles Warren; designed by Jeannet Leendertse. Reviewed by Richard Scaglion