For citations in all languages other than in English, please provide the title in the original language, romanized in accordance with one of the standard systems below, and an English translation of the title in square brackets and in sentence style (i.e, only first letter of first word and proper nouns capitalized). The titles of journals do not need to be translated. Please note that we will not review submissions whose endnotes cite only the English translations of titles, or make no attempt to follow a standard romanization system. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure that citations follow standard Romanization systems.

1. Chinese

Chinese language sources should be Romanized according to the pinyin system. Additional information is available at websites such as:

Citation Example:

Lin Jinshu, Chaoxian jingji [North Korean economy] (Changchun: Jilin renmin chubanshe, 2000), 19–20.

2. Japanese

We require the use of the Hepburn or the Modified Hepburn system (with macrons). Especially with names and titles of books and articles in Japanese, the use of a standardized system with macrons is necessary. Additional information is available at websites such as those below:

Commonly used transliterations for city names do not require macrons (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, etc.). For names of individuals and organizations, we prefer that macrons be used. In cases where there are common Romanizations of names that do not contain macrons, the first instance of the name should have the macrons in parenthesis: thus, for example, Aso Taro (Asō Tarō)

Citation Examples:

Oguma Eiji, Nihonjin no kyōkai: Okinawa, Ainu, Taiwan, Chōsen shokuminchi shihai kara fukki undō made [Boundaries of the Japanese: from colonial rule to the reversion movement–Okinawa, Ainu, Taiwan, Korea] (Tokyo: Shinyōsha, 1998), 45.

Ōgoshi Aiko, “Naze nikkan ‘josei’ kyōdō rekishi kyōzai Hensan purojekuto o tachiagetaka” [Why the Japan-Korea ‘women’ project for compiling joint history teaching materials was launched], Nihonshi Kenkyūkai no. 497 (2004): 24–30.

3. Korean

We require the use of either the McCune-Reischauer (with diphthongs) or the Revised Government (without diphthongs) systems.

Our preference is for the McCune-Reischauer system.

If you are not familiar with the standard romanization system, please refer to websites such as the ones below:

For names with common transliterations that do not follow a standard system, we prefer that the common version be given, followed by the McCune-Reischauer/Revised Romanization version in parentheses just in the first instance. For example, Syngman Rhee (Yi Sŭng-man); or Roh Moo-Hyun (No Mu-hyǒn).

Citation Examples:

Yi Chong-sǒk, Hyǒndae Puk-Han ŭi ihae [Understanding contemporary North Korea] (Seoul: Yǒksa pip’yǒngsa, 2000), 216–220.

Yi Jongseok, Hyeondae Buk-Han-ui ihae [Understanding contemporary North Korea] (Seoul: Yeoksa bipyeongsa, 2000), 216–220.

Kim Chŏng-yŏl, “Changaein ŭi hyŏnsil kwa changaein undong” [Realities of the handicapped and the handicapped social movement], Kyŏngje wa sahoe 67 (2005): 39–65.

Kim Jeongyeol, “Jangaein-ui hyeonsil-gwa jangaein undong” [Realities of the handicapped and the handicapped social movement], Gyeongje-wa sahoe 67 (2005): 39–65.

4. European Languages

Please provide all appropriate accents. For Russian (Cyrillic) please follow one of either the following two systems: GOST 7.79 (2002), or BGN/PCGN.